A New Therapeutic Strategy for Acute Ischemic Stroke
Sequential Combined Intravenous tPA-Tenecteplase for Proximal Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Based on First Results in 13 Consecutive Patients
Background and Purpose—Intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (IV tPA) frequently fails to recanalize proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA-M1) obstructions, preventing favorable outcomes. Only neurointerventional procedures prevail in these cases, but well-equipped centers remain scarce. A new therapeutic strategy consisting of a second IV thrombolysis with low-dose tenecteplase was applied.
Methods—Consecutive patients with an MCA-M1 occlusion that did not reopen at the end of IV tPA perfusion received IV tenecteplase (0.1 mg/kg). Partial or complete thrombolysis in myocardial infarction recanalization (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction grade 2/3) and intracerebral hemorrhage were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging ≈24 hours later. Clinical outcomes at 3 months were evaluated with the modified Rankin score.
Results—Among 40 patients with MCA-M1 occlusions who received IV tPA, 13 were treated according to the protocol of sequential combined IV thrombolytics. Baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 15. At a mean of 16.8 hours after IV thrombolysis, the recanalization rate was 100% (2 with Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction grade 2, 11 with Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction grade 3). Intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in 4 of 13 (31%) patients, with no symptomatic hemorrhage. Good clinical outcomes (modified Rankin score=0/1) were achieved in 9 of 13 (69%) patients. Functional outcomes were very similar to those of 13 patients with early IV-tPA recanalization. Among 4 patients treated as protocol violations, 1 presented with a lack of recanalization and a parenchymal hematoma type 2.
Conclusions—For patients with MCA-M1 occlusions treated with IV tPA but without early recanalization, a second bolus of IV tenecteplase (0.1 mg/kg) may be a relatively safe, effective, and easy option in carefully selected cases, but additional studies are needed to confirm these findings.
- Received December 1, 2010.
- Accepted January 20, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.