Dose Effect of Intraventricular Fibrinolysis in Ventricular Hemorrhage
Background and Purpose—The aim of the current study was to investigate the dose-dependent efficacy of intraventricular fibrinolysis (IVF) in patients with severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH).
Methods—Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, severe IVH, and obstructive hydrocephalus with the need for external ventricular drainage were treated with IVF through external ventricular drainage. The time course of IVH resolution and the safety profile were compared between patients treated with high-dose IVF (4 mg alteplase every 12 hours, maximum 20 mg; n=32) and low-dose IVF (1 mg alteplase every 8 hours, maximum 12 mg; n=22). CT scans on Days 1 to 4, 7±1 and 10±1 after admission, were analyzed volumetrically. Outcome was assessed after 3 months.
Results—The overall effect of IVF dosage was not significantly different between the 2 groups (F=1.3, P=0.25). The course of IVH volume in the third and fourth ventricles was similar with high- and low-dose IVF. High-dose IVF resulted in lower total IVH volumes on Days 7 (4.4±4.2 mL versus 8.8±8.1 mL; P=0.01) and 10 (1.4±2.8 mL versus 4.9±65.8 mL; P=0.005). Total clot half-life was 78±43 hours in the low-dose and 56±25 hours in the high-dose group (P=0.02). One asymptomatic ventricular bleeding, 2 cases of ventriculitis, and 1 death due to pulmonary embolism occurred in the high-dose group. There was no difference in outcome at 3 months.
Conclusions—Low-dose IVF (3 mg alteplase/day) has a similar effect on IVH clearance from the third and fourth ventricles and a similar safety profile when compared with high-dose IVF (8 mg alteplase/day).
- external ventricular drainage
- intracerebral hemorrhage
- intraventricular fibrinolysis
- intraventricular hemorrhage
- lumbar drainage
- Received November 8, 2010.
- Revision received January 12, 2011.
- Accepted January 13, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.