Antibodies Preventing the Interaction of Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator With N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptors Reduce Stroke Damages and Extend the Therapeutic Window of Thrombolysis
Background and Purpose—Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only drug approved for the acute treatment of ischemic stroke but with two faces in the disease: beneficial fibrinolysis in the vasculature and damaging effects on the neurovascular unit and brain parenchyma. To improve this profile, we developed a novel strategy, relying on antibodies targeting the proneurotoxic effects of tPA.
Methods—After production and characterization of antibodies (αATD-NR1) that specifically prevent the interaction of tPA with the ATD-NR1 of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, we have evaluated their efficacy in a model of murine thromboembolic stroke with or without recombinant tPA-induced reperfusion, coupled to MRI, near-infrared fluorescence imaging, and behavior assessments.
Results—In vitro, αATD-NR1 prevented the proexcitotoxic effect of tPA without altering N-methyl-d-aspartate-induced neurotransmission. In vivo, after a single administration alone or with late recombinant tPA-induced thrombolysis, antibodies dramatically reduced brain injuries and blood–brain barrier leakage, thus improving long-term neurological outcome.
Conclusions—Our strategy limits ischemic damages and extends the therapeutic window of tPA-driven thrombolysis. Thus, the prospect of this immunotherapy is an extension of the range of treatable patients.
- Received October 19, 2010.
- Revision received February 2, 2011.
- Accepted March 1, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.