Oxidative Damage in Ischemic Stroke Revealed Using Multiple Biomarkers
Background and Purpose—We investigated changes in oxidative damage after ischemic stroke using multiple biomarkers.
Methods—Serial blood and urine samples of ischemic stroke subjects and age-matched control subjects were assayed for F2-isoprostanes, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid products, F4-neuroprostanes, 24-hydroxycholesterol, allantoin, and urate.
Results—Sixty-six stroke subjects (mean age, 65 years; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 17) and 132 control subjects were recruited. A bimodal pattern of change was observed in plasma and urinary F2-isoprostanes and plasma 24-hydroxycholesterol. The rise in plasma hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid products, F4-neuroprostanes, and allantoin was highest 6 to 12 hours after stroke onset, whereas plasma urate was significantly lower than controls on Days 1 to 3. After adjusting for age and baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, baseline plasma esterified hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid products (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.02), plasma urate (1.01; 1.00 to 1.01), and plasma free F4-neuroprostanes (2.73; 1.76 to 3.93) were associated with 90-day good functional recovery (modified Rankin Scale ≤1).
Conclusions—Multiple markers of oxidative damage are increased immediately after stroke and remain elevated for several days. Recognition of these temporal changes may help design better antioxidant treatment trials for acute ischemic stroke.
- Received February 24, 2011.
- Accepted March 22, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.