Chronic Kidney Disease and Drinking Status in Relation to Risks of Stroke and Its Subtypes
The Circulatory Risk in Communities Study (CIRCS)
Background and Purpose—Several epidemiological studies have established an association between chronic kidney disease (CKD), based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and risk of stroke. However, sex-specific evidence for the relationship between CKD and risk of stroke and its subtypes is still limited.
Methods—We conducted a prospective cohort study of 12 222 Japanese men and women age 40 to 69 years living in 4 communities under systematic surveillance of stroke incidence to determine the relationship between CKD and risk of stroke and its subtypes.
Results—During the 17-year follow-up, there were 566 strokes (327 ischemic and 186 hemorrhagic strokes). GFR was inversely associated with age- and community-adjusted risk of total stroke for both men and women. Compared with the reference group without CKD (GFR ≥60 mL/min per 1.73m2), the adjusted risks of total stroke for subjects with CKD (GFR <60 mL/min per 1.73m2) were 1.63 (1.22–2.17) for men and 1.51 (1.13–2.02) for women. Excess risk of stroke associated with CKD was identified primarily for hemorrhagic stroke among men and for ischemic stroke among women. After adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, associations remained statistically significant. When stratified by drinking status, excess risk of hemorrhagic stroke with CKD was confined to drinkers; adjusted risks were 4.18 (2.31–7.57) for men and 7.00 (1.92–25.56) for women.
Conclusions—CKD was associated with increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke for men, and of ischemic stroke for women. This sex difference may partly be explained by the difference in prevalence of drinkers between men and women.
- Received August 22, 2010.
- Accepted January 26, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.