Neuroprotection by Freezing Ischemic Penumbra Evolution Without Cerebral Blood Flow Augmentation With a Postsynaptic Density-95 Protein Inhibitor
Background and Purpose—The purpose of this study was to determine whether neuroprotection is feasible without cerebral blood flow augmentation in experimental permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion.
Methods—Rats were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion by the suture occlusion method and were treated 1 hour thereafter with a single 5-minute intravenous infusion of the postsynaptic density-95 protein inhibitor Tat-NR2B9C (7.5 mg/kg) or saline (n=8/group). Arterial spin-labeled perfusion-weighted MRI and diffusion weighted MRI were obtained with a 4.7-T Bruker system at 30, 45, 70, 90, 120, 150, and 180 minutes postmiddle cerebral artery occlusion to determine cerebral blood flow and apparent diffusion coefficient maps, respectively. At 24 hours, animals were neurologically scored (0 to 5), euthanized, and the brains stained with 2–3-5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride to ascertain infarct volumes corrected for edema. Additionally, the effects of Tat-NR2B9C on adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels were measured in vitro in neurons subjected to oxygen–glucose deprivation.
Results—Final infarct volume was decreased by 30.3% in the Tat-NR2B9C-treated animals compared with controls (P=0.028). There was a significant improvement in 24 hours neurological scores in the Tat-NR2B9C group compared with controls, 1.8±0.5 and 2.8±1.0, respectively (P=0.021). Relative to controls, Tat-NR2B9C significantly attenuated diffusion-weighted imaging lesion growth and preserved the diffusion-weighted imaging/perfusion-weighted imaging mismatch (ischemic penumbra) without affecting cerebral blood flow in the ischemic core or penumbra. Tat-NR2B9C treatment of primary neuronal cultures resulted in 26% increase in cell viability and 34% greater adenosine 5′-triphosphate levels after oxygen–glucose deprivation.
Conclusions—Preservation of adenosine 5′-triphosphate levels in vitro and neuroprotection in permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats is achievable without cerebral blood flow augmentation using a postsynaptic density-95 protein inhibitor.
- Received March 7, 2011.
- Revision received May 11, 2011.
- Accepted June 1, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.