Upregulation of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and Microsomal Prostaglandin E2 Synthase-1 (mPGES-1) in Wall of Ruptured Human Cerebral Aneurysms
Background and Purpose—Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and Microsomal Prostaglandin E2 Synthase-1 (mPGES-1) catalyze isomerization of the cyclooxygenase product PGH2 into PGE2. Deletion of COX-2/mPGES-1 suppresses carotid artery atherogenesis and angiotensin II-induced aortic aneurysms formation, and attenuates neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury in mice. The upregulation of COX-2/mPGES-1 in the wall of ruptured human cerebral aneurysms is not known.
Methods—Ten patients with intracranial aneurysms (5 ruptured and 5 nonruptured) underwent microsurgical clipping. During the procedure, a segment of the aneurysm dome was resected and immunostained with monoclonal antibodies for COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES-1. A segment of the superficial temporal artery was also removed and immunostained with monoclonal antibodies for COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES-1.
Results—All 10 aneurysm tissues stained positive for mPGES-1 monoclonal antibody. Expression of mPGES-1 was more abundant in ruptured aneurysm tissue than in nonruptured aneurysms, based on a semiquantitative grading. None of the superficial temporal artery specimens expressed mPGES-1. COX-2 was upregulated in the same distribution as was mPGES-1. COX-1 was present constitutively in all tissues.
Conclusions—COX-2/mPGES-1 are expressed in the wall of human cerebral aneurysms and more abundantly so in ruptured aneurysms than in nonruptured. We speculate that the protective effect of aspirin against rupture of cerebral aneurysms may be mediated in part by inhibition of COX-2/mPGES-1.
- Received March 6, 2012.
- Accepted April 3, 2012.
- © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.