Comparison of Computed Tomography Perfusion and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Perfusion-Diffusion Mismatch in Ischemic Stroke
Background and Purpose—Perfusion imaging has the potential to select patients most likely to respond to thrombolysis. We tested the correspondence of computed tomography perfusion (CTP)-derived mismatch with contemporaneous perfusion-diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Methods—Acute ischemic stroke patients 3 to 6 hours after onset had CTP and perfusion-diffusion MRI within 1 hour, before thrombolysis. Relative cerebral blood flow (relCBF) and time to peak of the deconvolved tissue residue function (Tmax) were calculated. The diffusion lesion (diffusion-weighted imaging) was registered to the CTP slabs and manually outlined to its maximal visual extent. Volumetric accuracy of CT-relCBF infarct core (compared with diffusion-weighted imaging) was tested. To reduce false-positive low CBF regions, relCBF core was restricted to voxels within a relative time-to-peak (relTTP) >4 seconds for lesion region of interest. The MR-Tmax >6 seconds perfusion lesion was automatically segmented and registered to CTP. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis determined the optimal CT-Tmax threshold to match MR-Tmax >6 seconds. Agreement of these CT parameters with MR perfusion-diffusion mismatch in coregistered slabs was assessed (mismatch ratio >1.2, absolute mismatch >10 mL, infarct core <70 mL).
Results—In analysis of 49 patients (mean onset to CT, 213 minutes; mean CT to MR, 31 minutes), constraining relCBF <31% within the automated relTTP perfusion lesion region of interest reduced the median magnitude of volumetric error (vs diffusion-weighted imaging) from 47.5 mL to 15.8 mL (P<0.001). The optimal CT-Tmax threshold to match MR-Tmax >6 seconds was 6.2 seconds (95% confidence interval, 5.6–7.3 seconds; sensitivity, 91%; specificity, 70%; area under the curve, 0.87). Using CT-Tmax >6 seconds “penumbra” and relTTP-constrained relCBF “core,” CT-based and MRI-based mismatch status was concordant in 90% (kappa=0.80).
Conclusions—Quantitative CTP mismatch classification using relCBF and Tmax is similar to perfusion-diffusion MRI. The greater accessibility of CTP may facilitate generalizability of mismatch-based selection in clinical practice and trials.
- Received April 11, 2012.
- Accepted June 29, 2012.
- © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.