Remote Ischemic Perconditioning Is Effective Alone and in Combination With Intravenous Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator in Murine Model of Embolic Stroke
Background and Purpose—Remote ischemic conditioning is cardioprotective in myocardial infarction and neuroprotective in mechanical occlusion models of stroke. However, there is no report on its therapeutic potential in a physiologically relevant embolic stroke model (embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion) in combination with intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA).
Methods—We tested remote ischemic perconditioning therapy (RIPerC) at 2 hours after embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion in the mouse with and without intravenous tPA at 4 hours. We assessed cerebral blood flow up to 6 hours, neurological deficits, injury size, and phosphorylation of Akt (Serine473) as a prosurvival signal in the ischemic hemisphere at 48 hours poststroke.
Results—RIPerC therapy alone improved the cerebral blood flow and neurological outcomes. tPA alone at 4 hours did not significantly improve the neurological outcome even after successful thrombolysis. Individual treatments with RIPerC and intravenous tPA reduced the infarct size (25.7% and 23.8%, respectively). Combination therapy of RIPerC and tPA resulted in additive effects in further improving the neurological outcome and reducing the infarct size (50%). All the therapeutic treatments upregulated phosphorylation of Akt in the ischemic hemisphere.
Conclusions—RIPerC is effective alone after embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion and has additive effects in combination with intravenous tPA. RIPerC may be a simple, safe, and inexpensive combination therapy with intravenous tPA.
- Received April 10, 2012.
- Revision received July 11, 2012.
- Accepted July 13, 2012.
- © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.