Intraventricular Fibrinolysis Does Not Increase Perihemorrhagic Edema After Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Background and Purpose—Additional intraventricular hemorrhage leads to higher mortality and worse functional outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Intraventricular fibrinolysis (IVF) with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is an emerging treatment strategy for such patients. However, experimental studies suggest that rtPA may exert proedematous effects and lead to increased perihemorrhagic edema (PHE) after ICH. We aimed to compare the course of PHE after ICH between patients who received IVF with rtPA and controls matched for ICH volume.
Methods—Patients were identified retrospectively from our institutional ICH database. Sixty-four patients with ICH and intraventricular hemorrhage who were treated with IVF were compared with 64 controls, who did not receive IVF, matched for ICH volume. The course of PHE was assessed on computed tomography scans (day 1, days 2 and 3, days 4-6, 7-9, and 10-12) using a threshold-based semiautomatic volumetric algorithm. Relative PHE was calculated as a ratio of PHE volume and initial ICH volume.
Results—The matching algorithm resulted in similar mean ICH volumes in both groups (20.01±17.5 mL, IVF vs 20.08±17.1 mL, control). Intraventricular hemorrhage volume was larger in the IVF group (26.8±19.2 mL vs 9.2±13.4 mL). The mean total rtPA dose used for IVF was 8±6 mg. PHE increased over time in both groups until day 12. At all investigated time points, there was no significant difference in relative PHE between the IVF group and controls (F=0.39; P=0.844).
Conclusions—IVF with rtPA did not lead to a relevant increase in PHE after ICH. rtPA doses used in the current study seem to be safe regarding PHE.
- intracerebral hemorrhage
- intraventricular fibrinolysis
- intraventricular hemorrhage
- perihemorrhagic edema
- recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator
- semiautomatic volumetry
- X-ray computed tomography
- Received August 8, 2012.
- Revision received November 15, 2012.
- Accepted November 26, 2012.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.