Predictors for Recurrent Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage
A Retrospective Population-Based Study
Background and Purpose—Underlying comorbidities, previous strokes, and medication may increase the risk for primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PICH) and its recurrence. The aim of this study was to determine the independent predictors for recurrent PICH.
Methods—We identified 961 subjects with first-ever PICH from 1993 to 2008 among the population of Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland. Hospital and death records were reviewed and data on drug use were obtained from the national register of prescribed medicines. Kaplan–Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards models were used to demonstrate predictors for recurrence of PICH.
Results—Total follow-up time of the 961 patients was 3481 person-years. During the follow-up time, 58 subjects had altogether 68 recurrent PICHs. The annual average incidence of first recurrence was 1.67%. Cumulative 5- and 10-year incidence rates were 9.6% and 14.2%, respectively. In univariable analysis, history of ischemic stroke, diabetes mellitus, and aspirin use were associated with a higher recurrence rate. In multivariable analysis, only previous ischemic stroke (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.22–4.05; P=0.009) independently predicted PICH recurrence. Diabetes mellitus tended to increase (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.98–5.80; P=0.056), whereas treated hypertension tended to decrease (0.45, 0.20–1.01; P=0.054) the risk for fatal recurrent PICH.
Conclusions—Previous ischemic stroke independent of confounding factors may increase the risk for PICH recurrence.
- Received July 19, 2012.
- Revision received November 26, 2012.
- Accepted December 6, 2012.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.