Hemostatic Therapy in Experimental Intracerebral Hemorrhage Associated With Rivaroxaban
Background and Purpose—Rivaroxaban has recently been approved for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. However, lack of an effective antidote represents a major concern in the event of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The aims of the present study were to establish a murine model of ICH associated with rivaroxaban, and to examine the effectiveness of different hemostatic factors in preventing excess hematoma expansion.
Methods—In C57BL/6 mice receiving 10 or 30 mg/kg rivaroxaban by gastric gavage, plasma concentration, prothrombin time, and coagulation factor activities were measured repeatedly. Thirty minutes after inducing ICH by intrastriatal collagenase-injection, mice received an intravenous injection of either saline, prothrombin complex concentrate (100 U/kg), murine fresh frozen plasma (200 μL), or recombinant human Factor VIIa (1 mg/kg). ICH volume was quantified on brain cryosections and using hemoglobin spectrophotometry 24 hours later.
Results—Rivaroxaban in 30 mg/kg dose substantially increased the hematoma volume in ICH induced by 0.060 U collagenase. Prothrombin complex concentrate, fresh frozen plasma, or Factor VIIa prevented excess hematoma expansion caused by anticoagulation. Prevention of hematoma expansion by prothrombin complex concentrate was dose-dependent. None of the 3 agents completely corrected the prolonged prothrombin time, although they restored the activities of deficient FII and X.
Conclusions—Prothrombin complex concentrate, Factor VIIa, and fresh frozen plasma prevent excess intracerebral hematoma expansion in a murine ICH model associated with rivaroxaban. The efficacy and safety of this reversal strategy must be further evaluated in clinical studies.
- Received August 27, 2012.
- Accepted December 5, 2012.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.