Temporal Pattern of Cytotoxic Edema in the Perihematomal Region After Intracerebral Hemorrhage
A Serial Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study
Background and Purpose Knowledge about cytotoxic edema (CE) in intracerebral hemorrhage is still limited. We aimed to analyze its presence, temporal pattern, and prognostic meaning.
Methods—Twenty-one patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage underwent magnetic resonance imaging at days 1, 3, and 7 after symptom onset. CE was identified using diffusion-weighted imaging. Hematoma and perihematomal edema volumes were measured on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was assessed at admission and with each magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical outcome was assessed by modified Rankin scale at 90 days.
Results—CE appeared in half of the patients within the first 24 hours. The apparent diffusion coefficient values decreased until day 3 and were significantly reversed from days 3 through 7 (P<0.01). Patients with CE showed significantly faster perihematomal edema growth from day 0 to 1 (P=0.036) than those without. Larger 3-day perihematomal edema volume (P=0.02) and presence of CE on day 3 (P=0.07) were associated with poor clinical outcome.
Conclusions—CE is associated with stroke severity, perihematomal edema volume, and poor outcome. It is considered to indicate ongoing neuronal injury and, thus, might emerge as new treatment target.
- Received November 4, 2012.
- Accepted November 20, 2012.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.