High-density Lipoprotein–based Therapy Reduces the Hemorrhagic Complications Associated With Tissue Plasminogen Activator Treatment in Experimental Stroke
Background and Purpose—We have previously reported that intravenous injection of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) was neuroprotective in an embolic stroke model. We hypothesized that HDL vasculoprotective actions on the blood–brain barrier (BBB) may decrease hemorrhagic transformation-associated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration in acute stroke.
Methods—We used tPA alone or in combination with HDLs in vivo in 2 models of focal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) (embolic and 4-hour monofilament MCAO) and in vitro in a model of BBB. Sprague–Dawley rats were submitted to MCAO, n=12 per group. The rats were then randomly injected with tPA (10 mg/kg) or saline with or without human plasma purified-HDL (10 mg/kg). The therapeutic effects of HDL and BBB integrity were assessed blindly 24 hours later. The integrity of the BBB was also tested using an in vitro model of human cerebral endothelial cells under oxygen–glucose deprivation.
Results—tPA-treated groups had significantly higher mortality and rate of hemorrhagic transformation at 24 hours in both MCAO models. Cotreatment with HDL significantly reduced stroke-induced mortality versus tPA alone (by 42% in filament MCAO, P=0.009; by 73% in embolic MCAO, P=0.05) and tPA-induced intracerebral parenchymal hematoma (by 92% in filament MCAO, by 100% in embolic MCAO; P<0.0001). This was consistent with an improved BBB integrity. In vitro, HDLs decreased oxygen–glucose deprivation–induced BBB permeability (P<0.05) and vascular endothelial cadherin disorganization.
Conclusions—HDL injection decreased tPA-induced hemorrhagic transformation in rat models of MCAO. Both in vivo and in vitro results support the vasculoprotective action of HDLs on BBB under ischemic conditions.
- blood–brain barrier
- hemorrhagic transformation
- high-density lipoproteins
- ischemic stroke
- tissue plasminogen activator
- Received July 21, 2012.
- Accepted November 28, 2012.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.