Spot Sign Number Is the Most Important Spot Sign Characteristic for Predicting Hematoma Expansion Using First-Pass Computed Tomography Angiography
Analysis From the PREDICT Study
Background and Purpose—The spot sign score (SSS) provides risk stratification for hematoma expansion in acute intracerebral hemorrhage; however, external validation is needed. We sought to validate the SSS and assess prognostic performance of individual spot characteristics associated with hematoma expansion from a prospective multicenter intracerebral hemorrhage study.
Methods—Two hundred twenty-eight intracerebral hemorrhage patients within 6 hours after ictus were enrolled in the Predicting Hematoma Growth and Outcome in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Using Contrast Bolus CT (PREDICT) study, a multicenter prospective intracerebral hemorrhage cohort study. Patients were evaluated with baseline noncontrast computerized tomography, computerized tomography angiography, and 24-hour follow-up computerized tomography. Primary outcome was significant hematoma expansion (>6 mL or >33%) and secondary outcome was absolute and relative expansion. Blinded computerized tomography angiography spot sign characterization and SSS calculation were independently performed by 2 neuroradiologists and a radiology resident. Diagnostic performance of the SSS and individual spot characteristics were examined with multivariable regression, receiver operating characteristic analysis, and tests for trend.
Results—SSS and spot number independently predicted significant, absolute, and relative hematoma expansion (P<0.05 each) and demonstrated near perfect interobserver agreement (κ=0.82 and κ=0.85, respectively). Incremental risk of hematoma expansion among spot-positive patients was not identified for SSS (P trend=0.720) but was demonstrated for spot number (P trend=0.050). Spot number and SSS demonstrated similar area under the curve (0.69 versus 0.68; P=0.306) for hematoma expansion.
Conclusions—Multicenter external validation of the SSS demonstrates that the spot number alone provides similar prediction but improved risk stratification of hematoma expansion compared with the SSS.
- Received September 26, 2012.
- Accepted January 14, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.