Advanced Intimal Hyperplasia Without Luminal Narrowing of Leptomeningeal Arteries in CADASIL
Background and Purpose—Leptomeningeal artery abnormalities in Cerebral Autosomal–Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) have not been extensively characterized. We quantified substructure and diameter of leptomeningeal arteries in CADASIL compared with age-matched controls and the very old; in addition, we characterized intimal thickening in CADASIL using immunohistochemistry.
Methods—Frontal and temporal cortex of 6 genetically proven CADASIL brains (average age, 66 years), 6 controls without symptoms of cerebrovascular disease, and 6 very old brains (average age, 89 years) were examined for leptomeningeal artery intimal, medial, and adventitial thickness; inner diameter; and sclerotic index and for smooth muscle markers.
Results—The intima of CADASIL arteries was thickened 5-fold compared with controls and the very aged (P<0.0001). Medial thickness was lower in CADASIL compared with controls and the very old (P<0.01). The adventitia was not significantly increased in CADASIL compared with age-matched controls. Arterial diameters were not smaller in CADASIL compared with controls. Sclerotic index was significantly increased in CADASIL compared with other groups (P<0.00001). Intimal cells in CADASIL expressed smooth muscle actin, S100A4, and vimentin but not desmin.
Conclusions—Principle changes of leptomeningeal arteries in CADASIL include intimal thickening and medial thinning, but not luminal narrowing. Smooth muscle–like cells participate in neointimal thickening of CADASIL arteries.
- Received January 7, 2013.
- Accepted January 22, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.