White-Coat and Masked Hypertension Are Associated With Carotid Atherosclerosis in a General Population
The Hisayama Study
Background and Purpose—On the basis of combined measurements of clinic blood pressure (CBP) and home blood pressure (HBP), blood pressure status can be divided into normotension, white-coat hypertension (WCHT), masked hypertension (MHT), and sustained hypertension (SHT). Despite the clear impact of MHT and SHT on clinical and subclinical arterial disease, uncertainty about the influence of WCHT remains. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations of WCHT, MHT, and SHT with carotid atherosclerosis in a general population.
Methods—This is a cross-sectional survey of 2915 community-dwelling Japanese aged ≥40 years. Normotension was defined as CBP<140/90 and HBP<135/85 mm Hg; WCHT, CBP≥140/90 and HBP<135/85 mm Hg; MHT, CBP<140/90 and HBP≥135/85 mm Hg; and SHT, CBP≥140/90 and HBP≥135/85 mm Hg. Mean intima-media thickness of carotid arteries was measured using a computer-automated system, and carotid stenosis was defined as diameter stenosis ≥30%.
Results—There were 1374 subjects (47.1%) with normotension, 200 (6.9%) with WCHT, 639 (21.9%) with MHT, and 702 (24.1%) with SHT. The geometric average of mean intima-media thickness was significantly higher among subjects with WCHT (0.73 mm), MHT (0.77 mm), and SHT (0.77 mm) than those with normotension (0.67 mm; all P<0.001 versus normotension). Compared with normotension, all types of hypertension were also associated with increased likelihood of carotid stenosis (age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio, 2.36 [95% confidence interval, 1.27–4.37] for WCHT, 1.95 [1.25–3.03] for MHT, and 3.02 [2.01–4.54] for SHT). These associations remained significant even after adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors.
Conclusions—WCHT, as well as MHT, and SHT were associated with carotid atherosclerosis in a general Japanese population.
- clinic blood pressure
- home blood pressure
- intima-media thickness
- masked hypertension
- white-coat hypertension
- Received January 7, 2013.
- Revision received February 28, 2013.
- Accepted March 19, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.