Intravenous Minocycline in Acute Stroke
A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study and Meta-Analysis
Background and Purpose—Minocycline, in animal models and 2 small randomized controlled human trials, is a promising neuroprotective agent in acute stroke. We analyzed the efficacy and safety of intravenous minocycline in acute ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.
Methods—A multicenter prospective randomized open-label blinded end point evaluation pilot study of minocycline 100 mg administered intravenously, commenced within 24 hours of onset of stroke, and continued 12 hourly for a total of 5 doses, versus no minocycline. All participants received routine stroke care. Primary end point was survival free of handicap (modified Rankin Scale, ≤2) at day 90.
Results—Ninety-five participants were randomized; 47 to minocycline and 48 to no minocycline. In the intention-to-treat population, 29 of 47 (65.9%) allocated minocycline survived free of handicap compared with 33 of 48 (70.2%) allocated no minocycline (rate ratio, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.71–1.25 and odds ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.31–1.71). A meta-analysis of the 3 human trials suggests minocycline may increase the odds of handicap-free survival by 3-fold (odds ratio, 2.99; 95% CI, 1.74–5.16) but there was substantial heterogeneity among the trials.
Conclusions—In this pilot study of a small sample of acute stroke patients, intravenous minocycline was safe but not efficacious. The study was not powered to identify reliably or exclude a modest but clinically important treatment effect of minocycline. Larger trials would improve the precision of the estimates of any treatment effect of minocycline.
Clinical Trial Registration—URL: http://www.anzctr.org.au; Unique identifier: ACTRN12612000237886.
- Received January 21, 2013.
- Revision received January 21, 2013.
- Accepted May 29, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.