Admission Insular Infarction >25% Is the Strongest Predictor of Large Mismatch Loss in Proximal Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke
Background and Purpose—Previous univariate analyses have suggested that proximal middle cerebral artery infarcts with insular involvement have greater severity and are more likely to progress into surrounding penumbral tissue at risk. We hypothesized that a practical, simple scoring method to assess percent insular ribbon infarction (PIRI score) would improve prediction of penumbral loss over other common imaging biomarkers.
Methods—Of consecutive acute stroke patients from 2003 to 2008, 45 with proximal middle cerebral artery–only occlusion met inclusion criteria, including available penumbral imaging. Infarct (diffusion-weighted imaging), tissue at risk (magnetic resonance mean transit time), and final infarct volume (magnetic resonance/computed tomography) were manually segmented. Diffusion-weighted imaging images were rated according to the 5-point PIRI score (0, normal; 1, <25%; 2, 25%–49%; 3, 50%–74%; 4, ≥75% insula involvement). Percent mismatch loss was calculated as an outcome measure of infarct progression. Receiver operating characteristic curve and multivariate analyses were performed.
Results—Mean admission diffusion-weighted imaging infarct volume was 30.9 (±38.8) mL and median (interquartile range) PIRI score was 3 (0.75–4). PIRI score was significantly correlated with percent mismatch loss (P<0.0001). When percent mismatch loss was dichotomized based on its median value (30.0%), receiver operating characteristic curve area under curve was 0.89 (P=0.0001) with a 25% insula infarction optimal threshold. After adjusting for time to imaging and treatment, binary logistic regression, including dichotomized PIRI (25% threshold), age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, diffusion-weighted imaging infarct volume, and computed tomography angiography collateral score as covariates, revealed that only dichotomized insula score (P=0.03) and age (P=0.02) were independent predictors of large (68.2%) versus small (8.1%) mismatch loss. There was excellent interobserver agreement for dichotomized PIRI scoring (κ=0.91).
Conclusions—Admission insular infarction >25% is the strongest predictor of large mismatch loss in this cohort of proximal middle cerebral artery occlusive stroke. This outcome marker may help to identify treatment-eligible patients who are in greatest need of rapid reperfusion therapy.
- Received May 30, 2013.
- Revision received July 16, 2013.
- Accepted July 19, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.