Nasal Administration of Recombinant Osteopontin Attenuates Early Brain Injury After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Background and Purpose—Neuronal apoptosis is a key pathological process in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)–induced early brain injury. Given that recombinant osteopontin (rOPN), a promising neuroprotectant, cannot pass through the blood–brain barrier, we aimed to examine whether nasal administration of rOPN prevents neuronal apoptosis after experimental SAH.
Methods—Male Sprague–Dawley rats (n=144) were subjected to the endovascular perforation SAH model. rOPN was administered via the nasal route and neurological scores as well as brain water content were evaluated at 24 and 72 hours after SAH induction. The expressions of cleaved caspase-3, phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and phosphorylated Akt were examined using Western blot analysis. Neuronal cell death was demonstrated with terminal deoxynucleotid transferase-deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick end labeling. We also administered FAK inhibitor 14 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, Wortmannin, prior to rOPN to establish its neuroprotective mechanism. ELISA was used to measure rOPN delivery into the cerebrospinal fluid.
Results—Cerebrospinal fluid level of rOPN increased after its nasal administration. This was associated with improved neurological scores and reduced brain edema at 24 hours after SAH. rOPN increased phosphorylated FAK and phosphorylated Akt expressions and decreased caspase-3 cleavage, resulting in attenuation of neuronal cell death within the cerebral cortex. These effects were abolished by FAK inhibitor 14 and Wortmannin.
Conclusions—Nasal administration of rOPN decreased neuronal cell death and brain edema and improved the neurological status in SAH rats, possibly through FAK–phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–Akt–induced inhibition of capase-3 cleavage.
- Received March 21, 2013.
- Revision received July 3, 2013.
- Accepted July 25, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.