C-Reactive Protein Predicts Hematoma Growth in Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Background and Purpose—Early hematoma growth (EHG) occurs in about one third of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. The main aim of this study was to investigate the potential of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) for predicting EHG after acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.
Methods—Plasma CRP was measured within 6 hours of onset (median, 120 minutes) in 399 patients with primary or vitamin K antagonist–associated spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and without recent infection. Computed tomography brain scans were performed at baseline and repeated within 24 hours (median, 22 hours). The primary outcome was EHG, defined as absolute growth >12.5 cm3 or relative growth >33%. Secondary outcomes included early neurological worsening (ENW) using the Glasgow Coma Scale and 30-day mortality. Multivariable regression analyses were used to evaluate associations of CRP concentration and outcomes. Kaplan–Meier analysis was used for survival.
Results—EHG occurred in 25.8%, ENW in 19.3%, and mortality was 31.8% at 30 days. Thirty-day mortality was significantly higher in patients with ENW (hazard ratio, 3.21; 95% confidence interval, 2.00–5.17; P<0.0001) and in patients with EHG (hazard ratio, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.42–3.18; P<0.0001, log-rank test). Median CRP was 12 mg/L (interquartile range, 10–17) in the EHG group and 7 mg/L (interquartile range, 4–12.1) in those without EHG (P<0.0001). In multivariable analyses, plasma CRP>10 mg/L independently predicted EHG (odds ratio, 4.71; 95% confidence interval, 2.75–8.06; P<0.0001) and ENW (odds ratio, 2.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.50–4.84; P=0.0009).
Conclusions—CRP>10 mg/L is independently predictive of EHG and ENW, both of which are associated with increased mortality. Inflammation may be important in contributing to EHG and warrants further investigation.
- Received May 29, 2013.
- Accepted October 1, 2013.
- © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.