Patient Phenotypes Associated With Outcomes After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
A Principal Component Analysis
Background and Purpose—Predictors of outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage have been determined previously through hypothesis-driven methods that often exclude putative covariates and require a priori knowledge of potential confounders. Here, we apply a data-driven approach, principal component analysis, to identify baseline patient phenotypes that may predict neurological outcomes.
Methods—Principal component analysis was performed on 120 subjects enrolled in a prospective randomized trial of clazosentan for the prevention of angiographic vasospasm. Correlation matrices were created using a combination of Pearson, polyserial, and polychoric regressions among 46 variables. Scores of significant components (with eigenvalues >1) were included in multivariate logistic regression models with incidence of severe angiographic vasospasm, delayed ischemic neurological deficit, and long-term outcome as outcomes of interest.
Results—Sixteen significant principal components accounting for 74.6% of the variance were identified. A single component dominated by the patients’ initial hemodynamic status, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies score, neurological injury, and initial neutrophil/leukocyte counts was significantly associated with poor outcome. Two additional components were associated with angiographic vasospasm, of which one was also associated with delayed ischemic neurological deficit. The first was dominated by the aneurysm-securing procedure, subarachnoid clot clearance, and intracerebral hemorrhage, whereas the second had high contributions from markers of anemia and albumin levels.
Conclusions—Principal component analysis, a data-driven approach, identified patient phenotypes that are associated with worse neurological outcomes. Such data reduction methods may provide a better approximation of unique patient phenotypes and may inform clinical care as well as patient recruitment into clinical trials.
- coronary vasospasm
- outcome assessment (health care)
- principal component analysis
- subarachnoid hemorrhage
- Received September 30, 2013.
- Accepted December 4, 2013.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.