Unilateral Intracranial Arteriopathy in Pediatric Stroke
Course, Outcome, and Prediction of Reversible Arteriopathy
Background and Purpose—The nonprogressive, often reversible, unilateral arteriopathy known as transient (focal) cerebral arteriopathy has become a leading cause of childhood arterial ischemic stroke. However, it is not a well-recognized arteriopathy in East Asian countries where moyamoya disease is prevalent.
Methods—We retrospectively reviewed 74 children and adolescents (<18 years) with arterial ischemic stroke and intracranial arteriopathy to identify 29 patients with unilateral large-artery arteriopathy mainly in the anterior circulation. Among them, 25 patients who fulfilled the following inclusion criteria were analyzed to determine the angiographic course and outcome: (1) repeated vascular imaging at least twice and (2) absence of thrombotic disorders or cardiac diseases.
Results—The course of unilateral arteriopathy was classified as reversible in 17 patients (68%), progressive in 5 (20%), and stable in 3 (12%). Nine of the 17 patients with reversible arteriopathy exhibited initial worsening of the arteriopathy mostly within 1 month, but the worsened arteriopathy began to improve within 3 months and continued to improve even after a few years. Two of these 9 patients experienced stroke progression at 6 days. Of the variables analyzed, infarction involving the basal ganglia (15 of 17) and arterial beading on angiography performed within 2 weeks (10 of 12) were associated with reversible arteriopathy. Involvement of the ipsilateral posterior cerebral artery was rare (1 of 17).
Conclusions—The possibility of reversible arteriopathy should be suspected in children and adolescents presenting with arterial ischemic stroke and unilateral arteriopathy.
- Received November 11, 2013.
- Revision received January 13, 2014.
- Accepted January 23, 2014.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.