Extravascular Optical Coherence Tomography
Evaluation of Carotid Atherosclerosis and Pravastatin Therapy
Background and Purpose—Extravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT), as a noninvasive imaging methodology with micrometer resolution, was evaluated in a murine model of carotid atherosclerosis by way of assessing the efficacy of pravastatin therapy.
Methods—An OCT device was engineered for extravascular plaque imaging. Wild-type mice and apolipoprotein E–deficient (ApoE−/−) mice were randomized to 3 treatment groups: (1) wild-type on a diet of standard rodent chow (n=13); (2) ApoE−/− on a high-fat, atherosclerotic diet (HFD; n=13); and (3) ApoE−/− on a HFD given daily pravastatin (n=13). Mice were anesthetized and the left common carotid was surgically exposed. Three-dimensional (3D; 2 spatial dimensions+time) and 4D (3 spatial dimensions+time) OCT images of the vessel lumen patency were evaluated. After perfusion, in situ OCT imaging was performed for statistical comparison with the in vivo results and final histology.
Results—Intraoperative OCT imaging positively identified carotid plaque in 100% of ApoE−/− mice on HFD. ApoE−/− mice on HFD had a significantly decreased lumen patency when compared with that in wild-type mice (P<0.001). Pravastatin therapy was found to increase lumen patency significantly in ApoE−/− mice on HFD (P<0.01; compared with ApoE−/− on HFD). The findings were confirmed with OCT imaging after perfusion and histology.
Conclusions—OCT imaging offers the potential for real-time, detailed vessel lumen evaluation, potentially improving surgical accuracy and outcomes during cerebrovascular neurosurgical procedures. Pravastatin significantly increases vessel lumen patency in the ApoE−/− mouse on HFD.
- Received September 4, 2013.
- Revision received January 24, 2014.
- Accepted January 29, 2014.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.