Safety of Thrombolysis in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke and Cerebral Cavernous Malformations
Background and Purpose—Data on safety of intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke in patients with coexisting cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are scarce. We assessed the risk of thrombolysis-associated hemorrhage in these patients.
Methods—We searched our tertiary care hospital thrombolysis register for patients with CCM confirmed by MRI (3 T, Siemens, TimTrio) before thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke. CCMs were graded into subtypes according to the Zabramski classification on the basis of their MRI appearance. The primary end point was symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage according to European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study III (ECASS III) criteria. The secondary end point was any parenchymal hemorrhage.
Results—In a total of 350 patients (median age, 76 years; interquartile range, 68–84; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 8; interquartile range, 5–14; 51.4% women), CCMs were found in 9 patients (2.6%). Seven patients had a single CCM, and 2 patients had multiple CCMs with a total number of 12 CCMs in all patients. The subtype of CCMs was type III in 9 cases and type I in 3 cases. Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in 1 of 9 patients with CCM versus 11 of 341 patients without CCM (P=0.27). Parenchymal hemorrhage occurred in 2 of 9 patients with CCM versus 27 of 341 patients (P=0.17) without CCM.
Conclusions—Given the limitations of our study (mainly low number of patients with CCM), the risk of thrombolysis-associated hemorrhage in patients with CCM remains uncertain. Although our data do not suggest an increased hazard from thrombolysis in patients with CCM, larger studies are necessary to determine definitively the influence of CCMs on parenchymal hemorrhage and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage.
- hemangioma, cavernous
- hemangioma, cavernous, central nervous system
- thrombolytic therapy
- Received December 17, 2013.
- Accepted March 27, 2014.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.