Endoglin Deficiency Impairs Stroke Recovery
Background and Purpose—Endoglin deficiency causes hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia-1 and impairs myocardial repair. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia-1 are associated with a high incidence of paradoxical embolism in the cerebral circulation and ischemic brain injury. We hypothesized that endoglin deficiency impairs stroke recovery.
Methods—Eng heterozygous (Eng+/–) and wild-type mice underwent permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). Pial collateral vessels were quantified before pMCAO. Infarct/atrophic volume, vascular density, and macrophages were quantified in various days after pMCAO, and behavioral function was assessed using corner and adhesive removal tests on days 3, 15, 30, and 60 after pMCAO. The association between ENG 207G>A polymorphism and brain arteriovenous malformation rupture and surgery outcome was analyzed using logistic regression analysis in 256 ruptured and 157 unruptured patients.
Results—After pMCAO, Eng+/– mice showed larger infarct/atrophic volumes at all time points (P<0.05) and showed worse behavior performance (P<0.05) at 15, 30, and 60 days when compared with wild-type mice. Eng+/– mice had fewer macrophages on day 3 (P=0.009) and more macrophages on day 60 (P=0.02) in the peri-infarct region. Although Eng+/– and wild-type mice had similar numbers of pial collateral vessels before pMCAO, Eng+/– mice had lower vascular density in the peri-infarct region (P=0.05) on day 60 after pMCAO. In humans, ENG 207A allele has been associated with worse outcomes after arteriovenous malformation rupture or surgery of patients with unruptured arteriovenous malformation.
Conclusions—Endoglin deficiency impairs brain injury recovery. Reduced angiogenesis, impaired macrophage homing, and delayed inflammation resolution could be the underlying mechanism.
- Received February 7, 2014.
- Revision received April 10, 2014.
- Accepted April 17, 2014.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.