Implication of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Cryptogenic Ischemic Stroke
Background and Purpose—Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is a predictor for atrial fibrillation (AF). This study was aimed to investigate whether LVDD in cryptogenic ischemic stroke (CS) could be a clue to stroke mechanism.
Methods—The clinical and echocardiographic findings of 1589 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack between 2004 and 2013 were reviewed. LVDDs among stroke subtypes were graded by transthoracic echocardiography into 4 groups by severity: normal, abnormal relaxation (grade I), pseudonormal (grade II), and restrictive diastolic filling (grade III), whereas severe LVDD was defined as grade III. We classified the lesion pattern of CS into cardioembolism-mimic or non–cardioembolism-mimic and determined whether cardioembolism-mimic lesions were associated with severe LVDD.
Results—The fraction of severe LVDD in CS was not different from that of stroke with AF (27.3% versus 37.1%; P=0.173) but was significantly higher than that of stroke without AF (27.3% versus 13.4%; P=0.008). Cardioembolism-mimic CS had more severe LVDD than non–cardioembolism-mimic CS (41.4% versus 11.5%; P=0.013). LVDD of grade II (odds ratio, 4.37; 95% confidence interval, 2.99–6.41) and grade III (odds ratio, 5.60; 95% confidence interval, 3.42–9.17) were independently related to stroke with AF after adjusting covariates.
Conclusions—The severe LVDD could be a predictor of stroke with AF, and its frequency was similar between CS and stroke with AF. Cardioembolism-mimic CS had significantly more severe LVDD than non–cardioembolism-mimic CS. LVDD could be helpful to discriminate the stroke mechanism in the patients with acute CS.
- Received May 14, 2014.
- Revision received June 30, 2014.
- Accepted July 7, 2014.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.