Plasma Magnesium and Risk of Ischemic Stroke Among Women
Background and Purpose—Lower plasma magnesium levels may be associated with higher blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction, but sparse prospective data are available for stroke.
Methods—Among 32 826 participants in the Nurses’ Health Study who provided blood samples in 1989 to 1990, incident ischemic strokes were identified and confirmed by medical records through 2006. We conducted a nested case–control analysis of 459 cases, matched 1:1 to controls on age, race/ethnicity, smoking status, date of blood draw, fasting status, menopausal status, and hormone use. We used conditional logistic regression models to estimate the multivariable adjusted association of plasma magnesium and the risk of ischemic stroke and ischemic stroke subtypes.
Results—Median magnesium levels did not differ between ischemic stroke cases and controls (median, 0.86 mmol/L for both; P=0.14). Conditional on matching factors, women in the lowest magnesium quintile had a relative risk of 1.34 (95% confidence interval, 0.86–2.10; P trend=0.13) for total ischemic stroke compared with women in the highest quintile. Additional adjustment for risk factors and confounders did not substantially alter the risk estimates for total ischemic stroke. Women with magnesium levels <0.82 mmol/L had significantly greater risk of total ischemic stroke (multivariable relative risk, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.09–2.27; P=0.01) and thrombotic stroke (multivariable relative risk, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–2.65; P=0.03) compared with women with magnesium levels ≥0.82 mmol/L. No significant effect modification was observed by age, body mass index, hypertension, or diabetes mellitus.
Conclusions—Lower plasma magnesium levels may contribute to higher risk of ischemic stroke among women.
- Received April 23, 2014.
- Revision received July 1, 2014.
- Accepted July 18, 2014.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.