Hemorrhagic Stroke and Cerebral Paragonimiasis
Background and Purpose—We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and imaging characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment outcomes of 10 patients with hemorrhagic cerebral paragonimiasis (CP), and we evaluated the influence of Paragonimus infection on cerebrovascular damage.
Methods—Ten patients (7 male and 3 female; median age 15.7 years, range 4–46 years) with hemorrhagic CP were diagnosed between April 2009 and January 2013. All patients underwent the head computed tomography scans and 9 patients underwent MRI examinations. Four patients underwent computed tomographic angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, and digital subtraction angiography. Liquid-based cytological examination of cerebrospinal fluid was performed in 7 patients. Follow-up examinations were performed for 9 cases for a period of 12 to 62 months.
Results—Hemorrhagic CP accounted for 37% of CP cases (10/27). No patients were initially diagnosed with CP. The major symptoms of hemorrhagic CP included acute headache, vomiting, hemiparalysis, epilepsy, blurred vision, sensory impairment, and tinnitus. Four cases were surgically treated. Most symptoms markedly improved, but fine motor dysfunction and mental dysfunction remained in 3 surgical patients.
Conclusions—Hemorrhagic stroke typically occurred during the acute stage and in the early stages of further Paragonimus migration. Delay of treatment increased the risk of initial and recurrent stroke.
- Received August 30, 2014.
- Revision received September 10, 2014.
- Accepted September 11, 2014.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.