Spot Sign on 90-Second Delayed Computed Tomography Angiography Improves Sensitivity for Hematoma Expansion and Mortality
Background and Purpose—The computed tomography angiography (CTA) spot sign is a validated biomarker for poor outcome and hematoma expansion in intracerebral hemorrhage. The spot sign has proven to be a dynamic entity, with multimodal imaging proving to be of additional value. We investigated whether the addition of a 90-second delayed CTA acquisition would capture additional intracerebral hemorrhage patients with the spot sign and increase the sensitivity of the spot sign.
Methods—We prospectively enrolled consecutive intracerebral hemorrhage patients undergoing first pass and 90-second delayed CTA for 18 months at a single academic center. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to assess clinical and neuroimaging covariates for relationship with hematoma expansion and mortality.
Results—Sensitivity of the spot sign for hematoma expansion on first pass CTA was 55%, which increased to 64% if the spot sign was present on either CTA acquisition. In multivariate analysis the spot sign presence was associated with significant hematoma expansion: odds ratio, 17.7 (95% confidence interval, 3.7–84.2; P=0.0004), 8.3 (95% confidence interval, 2.0–33.4; P=0.004), and 12.0 (95% confidence interval, 2.9–50.5; P=0.0008) if present on first pass, delayed, or either CTA acquisition, respectively. Spot sign presence on either acquisitions was also significant for mortality.
Conclusions—We demonstrate improved sensitivity for predicting hematoma expansion and poor outcome by adding a 90-second delayed CTA, which may enhance selection of patients who may benefit from hemostatic therapy.
- Received March 24, 2014.
- Revision received September 3, 2014.
- Accepted September 9, 2014.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.