Recombinant Milk Fat Globule–EGF Factor-8 Reduces Oxidative Stress via Integrin β3/Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2–Related Factor 2/Heme Oxygenase Pathway in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Rats
Background and Purpose—Milk fat globule–EGF factor-8 (MFGE8) has been reported to be neuroprotective in ischemic stroke. However, the effects of MFGE8 in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have not been investigated. We investigated the role of MFGE8 in early brain injury and the potential mechanisms in antioxidation after SAH.
Methods—Two dosages (1 μg and 3.3 μg) of recombinant human MFGE8 were injected intracerebroventricularly at 1.5 hours after SAH. SAH grades, neurological scores, and brain water content were measured at 24 and 72 hours. For mechanistic study, MFGE8 siRNA, integrin β3 siRNA, and heme oxygenase (HO) inhibitor SnPP IX were used for intervention. The oxidative stress and expression of MFGE8, integrin β3, HO-1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 were measured by Western blots 24 hours after SAH.
Results—The expression of MFGE8 and HO-1 increased and peaked 24 hours after SAH. Administration of recombinant human MFGE8 decreased brain water content and improved neurological functions both at 24 hours and at 72 hours after SAH. Recombinant human MFGE8 reduced oxidative stress and enhanced the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2, and HO-1; and the effects were abolished by integrin β3 siRNA and HO inhibitor SnPP IX.
Conclusions—Recombinant MFGE8 attenuated oxidative stress that may be mediated by integrin β3/nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2/HO pathway after SAH. Recombinant MFGE8 may serve as an alternative treatment to ameliorate early brain injury for SAH patients.
- Received July 1, 2014.
- Revision received September 24, 2014.
- Accepted September 30, 2014.
- © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.