A Simple Grading Scale for Prediction of Delayed Cerebral Ischemia After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Background and Purpose—Patients are classically at risk of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We validated a grading scale—the VASOGRADE—for prediction of DCI.
Methods—We used data of 3 phase II randomized clinical trials and a single hospital series to assess the relationship between the VASOGRADE and DCI. The VASOGRADE derived from previously published risk charts and consists of 3 categories: VASOGRADE-Green (modified Fisher scale 1 or 2 and World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies scale [WFNS] 1 or 2); VASOGRADE-Yellow (modified Fisher 3 or 4 and WFNS 1–3); and VASOGRADE-Red (WFNS 4 or 5, irrespective of modified Fisher grade). The relation between the VASOGRADE and DCI was assessed by logistic regression models. The predictive accuracy of the VASOGRADE was assessed by receiver operating characteristics curve and calibration plots.
Results—In a cohort of 746 patients, the VASOGRADE significantly predicted DCI (P<0.001). The VASOGRADE-Yellow had a tendency for increased risk for DCI (odds ratio [OR], 1.31; 95% CI, 0.77–2.23) when compared with VASOGRADE-Green; those with VASOGRADE-Red had a 3-fold higher risk of DCI (OR, 3.19; 95% CI, 2.07–4.50). Studies were not a significant confounding factor between the VASOGRADE and DCI. The VASOGRADE had an adequate discrimination for prediction of DCI (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve=0.63) and good calibration.
Conclusions—The VASOGRADE results validated previously published risk charts in a large and diverse sample of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients, which allows DCI risk stratification on presentation after subarachnoid hemorrhage. It could help to select patients at high risk of DCI, as well as standardize treatment protocols and research studies.
- Received January 28, 2015.
- Revision received March 30, 2015.
- Accepted April 7, 2015.
- © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.