Chronic Kidney Disease in Patients With Lacunar Stroke
Association With Enlarged Perivascular Spaces and Total Magnetic Resonance Imaging Burden of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease
Background and purpose—The relationship between chronic kidney disease and cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD), especially enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS), has not been fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the association of chronic kidney disease and EPVS, as well as the total burden of cSVD on magnetic resonance imaging, expressed by the simultaneous presence of multiple markers of cSVD, among patients with first-ever lacunar stroke.
Methods—Four hundred and thirteen consecutive patients were prospectively enrolled. Centrum semiovale and basal ganglia EPVS on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, as well as other imaging markers of cSVD, including lacune, white matter lesions, and cerebral microbleeds, were rated using validated scales. Chronic kidney disease was defined as either reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate or the presence of proteinuria.
Results—After adjustments for potential confounders by logistic regression, proteinuria and impaired estimated glomerular filtration rate were correlated with the severity of EPVS in both centrum semiovale (odds ratio [OR] 2.59; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19–5.64 and OR 2.37; 95% CI 1.19–4.73) and basal ganglia (OR 5.12; 95% CI 2.70–12.10 and OR 4.17; 95% CI 2.08–8.37). A similar association was also found between proteinuria and low estimated glomerular filtration rate levels and the comprehensive cSVD burden (OR 2.13; 95% CI 1.10–4.14 and OR 5.59; 95% CI 2.58–12.08).
Conclusions—Proteinuria and impaired estimated glomerular filtration rate are associated with increasing EPVS severity and, furthermore, accumulated magnetic resonance imaging burden of cSVD in patients with first-ever acute lacunar stroke.
- Received November 23, 2014.
- Revision received May 27, 2015.
- Accepted May 28, 2015.
- © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.