Recombinant ADAMTS 13 Attenuates Brain Injury After Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Background and Purpose—Inflammatory responses and blood–brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction play important roles in brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The metalloprotease ADAMTS 13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type I motif, member 13) was shown to limit inflammatory responses through its proteolytic effects on von Willebrand factor. In the present study, we addressed the role of ADAMTS 13 after experimental ICH.
Methods—ICH was induced in mice by intracerebral infusion of autologous blood. The peri-hematomal inflammatory responses, levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, pericyte coverage on brain capillaries, and BBB permeability were quantified at 24 hours. Functional outcomes, cerebral edema, and hemorrhagic lesion volume were quantified at day 3.
Results—Treatment with recombinant ADAMTS 13 (rADAMTS 13) reduced the levels of chemokines and cytokines, myeloperoxidase activity, and microglia activation and neutrophil recruitment after ICH. rADAMTS 13 also decreased interleukin-6 expression in brain endothelial cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide, whereas recombinant von Willebrand factor reversed this effect. The anti-inflammatory effect of rADAMTS 13 was accompanied by reduced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and less activation of matrix metalloproteinase, enhanced pericyte coverage of brain microvessels, and attenuated BBB disruption. Furthermore, neutrophil depletion protected against BBB damage, and rADAMTS 13 treatment had no further beneficial effect. Finally, treatment of mice with rADAMTS 13 reduced cerebral edema and hemorrhagic lesion volume and improved neurological functions.
Conclusions—Our findings reveal the importance of rADAMTS 13 in regulating pathological inflammation and BBB function and suggest that rADAMTS 13 may provide a new therapeutic strategy for ICH.
- Received March 24, 2015.
- Revision received June 18, 2015.
- Accepted July 7, 2015.
- © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.