Prevalence of Stroke and Its Risk Factors in Urban Sri Lanka
Background and Purpose—Stroke is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. In the absence of published population-based prevalence data, we investigated the prevalence and risk factors of stroke in a population of varying urbanization in Sri Lanka.
Methods—A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among 2313 adults aged ≥18 years residing in Colombo, selected using a multistage, probability proportionate-to-size, cluster sampling technique. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Ever diagnosis of stroke was confirmed by medical doctors based on World Health Organization criteria and corroborated by documental evidence.
Results—Of the total population (52.4% women; mean age, 44.2 years; SD, 16.6), the prevalence of stroke was 10.4 per 1000 (95% confidence interval, 6.3–14.5) with a 2:1 male:female ratio. Beyond the age of 65 years, the prevalence was higher by 6-fold among men and by 2-fold among women. Ninety two percent had developed hemiparesis, 58.3% had dysphasia, and 16.7% had loss of balance. Hypertension was the commonest risk factor (62.5%) followed by smoking (45.8%), excess alcohol (41.7%), diabetes mellitus (33.3%), and transient ischemic attack (29.2%); 79.2%, predominantly men, had ≥2 risk factors. A percentage of 58.3 had brain computed tomographic scans, of whom 85.7% had ischemic strokes. A percentage of 64.3 had to change or give up working because of stroke-related disability.
Conclusions—Age-adjusted stroke prevalence in urban Sri Lanka lies between high-income and low-/middle-income countries. The prevalence of stroke and its risk factors were higher among men.
- Received May 27, 2015.
- Revision received August 6, 2015.
- Accepted August 7, 2015.
- © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.