Perihematomal Edema and Functional Outcomes in Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Influence of Hematoma Volume and Location
Background and Purpose—Perihematomal edema (PHE) is associated with poor outcomes after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). PHE evolves in the early period after ICH, providing a therapeutic target and window for intervention. We studied the effect of PHE volume expansion in the first 72 hours (iPHE) and its relationship with functional outcomes.
Methods—We used data contained in the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive. We included patients who presented within 6 hours of symptom onset, had baseline clinical, radiological, and laboratory data, and further computed tomographic scan data at 72 hours and 90-day functional outcomes. We calculated iPHE and used logistic regression analysis to assess relationships with outcome. We adjusted for confounding variables and the primary outcome measure poor day-90 outcome (defined as modified Rankin Scale score of ≥3. We performed subgroup analyses by location and by volume of ICH.
Results—We included 596 patients with ICH. Median baseline hematoma volume was 15.0 mL (IQR, 7.9–29.2) and median baseline PHE volume was 8.7 mL (IQR, 4.5–15.5). Hematoma expansion occurred in 122 (34.9%) patients. Median iPHE was 14.7 mL (IQR, 6.6–30.3). The odds of a poor outcome were greater with increasing iPHE (OR, 1.78; CI, 1.12–2.64 per mL increase). Subgroup analyses showed that iPHE was only related to poor functional outcomes in basal ganglia and small (<30 mL) ICH.
Conclusions—Absolute increase in PHE during 72 hours was associated with worse functional outcomes after ICH, particularly with basal ganglia ICH and hematomas <30 mL.
- Received May 18, 2015.
- Revision received August 2, 2015.
- Accepted August 26, 2015.
- © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.