Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Angiography Provides Collateral Circulation and Hemodynamic Information in Acute Ischemic Stroke
Background and Purpose—Contrary to usual static vascular imaging techniques, contrast-enhanced dynamic magnetic resonance angiography (dMRA) enables dynamic study of cerebral vessels. We evaluated dMRA ability to assess arterial occlusion, cerebral hemodynamics, and collateral circulation in acute ischemic stroke.
Methods—Twenty-five acute ischemic stroke patients with proximal anterior circulation occlusion underwent dMRA on a 3T scanner within 12 hours of symptoms onset. Diffusion weighted imaging, Tmax6 s lesion volumes and hypoperfusion intensity ratio as volume of Tmax>6 s/volume of Tmax>10 s were measured. Site and grade of occlusion (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction criteria) were evaluated on time-of-flight MRA and dMRA. Leptomeningeal collaterality (American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology/Society of Interventional Radiology [ASITN/SIR] Scale) and asymmetries in venous clearance were assessed exclusively on dMRA. Collateral filling was dichotomized into incomplete (ASITN/SIR 0–2) or complete (ASITN/SIR 3–4).
Results—On dMRA, site of occlusion was M1 in 21 patients, tandem internal carotid artery/M1 in 2 and tandem internal carotid artery/terminal internal carotid artery in 2 patients. Three tandem occlusions were not detected on time-of-flight–MRA. All patients had Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 0 to 1 on time-of-flight–MRA, but three of them had Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 2 on dMRA. Complete collateral filling (n=12, 48%) was associated with smaller diffusion weighted imaging lesion volume (P=0.039), smaller hypoperfused volume (P=0.018), and lower hypoperfusion intensity ratio (P=0.006). Patients with symmetrical clearance of transverse sinuses (52%) were more likely to have complete collateral filling (P=0.015).
Conclusions—As a fast, direct, feasible, noninvasive, and reliable method to assess site of occlusion, collateral circulation and hemodynamic alterations, dMRA provides profound insights in acute stroke.
- Received August 4, 2015.
- Revision received October 27, 2015.
- Accepted October 29, 2015.
- © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.