Nonpsychotic Mental Disorders in Teenage Males and Risk of Early Stroke
A Population-Based Study
Background and Purpose—Although the incidence of stroke is on the decline worldwide, this is not the case for early stroke. We aimed to determine whether nonpsychotic mental disorder at the age of 18 years is a risk factor for early stroke, and if adolescent cardiovascular fitness and intelligence quotient might attenuate the risk.
Method—Population-based Swedish cohort study of conscripts (n=1 163 845) who enlisted during 1968 to 2005. At conscription, 45 064 males were diagnosed with nonpsychotic mental disorder. Risk of stroke during follow-up (5–42 years) was calculated with Cox proportional hazards models. Objective baseline measures of fitness and cognition were included in the models in a second set of analyses.
Results—There were 7770 first-time stroke events. In adjusted models, increased risk for stroke was observed in men diagnosed with depressive/neurotic disorders (hazard ratio [HR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11–1.37), personality disorders (HR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.29–1.78), and alcohol/substance use disorders (HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.41–1.83) at conscription. Corresponding figures for fatal stroke were HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.79; HR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.60 to 3.19; and HR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.63 to 2.96. HRs for stroke were attenuated when fitness level and intelligence quotient were introduced. Associations remained significant for personality disorders and alcohol/substance use in the fully adjusted models. The interaction term was statistically significant for fitness but not for intelligence quotient.
Conclusions—Our findings suggest that fitness may modify associations between nonpsychotic disorders and stroke. It remains to be clarified whether interventions designed to improve fitness in mentally ill youth can influence future risk of early stroke.
- Received December 17, 2015.
- Revision received December 17, 2015.
- Accepted January 4, 2016.
- © 2016 The Authors.
Stroke is published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wolters Kluwer. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial-NoDervis License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited, the use is noncommercial, and no modifications or adaptations are made.