Inflammatory Markers and Outcomes After Lacunar Stroke
Levels of Inflammatory Markers in Treatment of Stroke Study
Background and Purpose—We hypothesized that concentrations of interleukin 6 (IL-6), serum amyloid A, tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 1, CD40 ligand, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 would predict recurrent ischemic stroke and major vascular events after recent lacunar stroke.
Methods—Levels of Inflammatory Markers in the Treatment of Stroke (LIMITS) was an international, multicenter, prospective ancillary biomarker study nested within the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes (SPS3) study, a Phase III trial in patients with recent lacunar stroke. Crude and Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for recurrence risks.
Results—Among 1244 patients with lacunar stroke (mean age, 63.3±10.8 years), there were 115 major vascular events (stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death). The risk of major vascular events increased with elevated concentrations of both tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 1 (adjusted HR per SD, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.05–1.41; P=0.01) and IL-6 (adjusted HR per SD, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02–1.19; P=0.008). Compared with the bottom quartile (tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 1 <2.24 ng/L), those in the top quartile of tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 1 (>3.63 ng/L) were at twice the risk of major vascular events after adjusting for demographics (partially adjusted HR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.11–3.52), though the effect attenuated after adjusting for other risk factors and statin use (adjusted HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 0.93–3.04). Serum amyloid A, CD40 ligand, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 were not associated with prognosis.
Conclusions—Among recent lacunar stroke patients, IL-6 and TNF receptor concentrations predict risk of recurrent vascular events, and they are associated with the effect of antiplatelet therapies.
- Received November 18, 2015.
- Revision received January 15, 2016.
- Accepted January 19, 2016.
- © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.