Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities in Gastrostomy Tube Placement After Intracerebral Hemorrhage in the United States
Background and Purpose—Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes are widely used for enteral feeding of patients after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We sought to determine whether PEG placement after ICH differs by race and socioeconomic status.
Methods—Patient discharges with ICH as the primary diagnosis from 2007 to 2011 were queried from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between race, insurance status, and household income with PEG placement.
Results—Of 49 946 included ICH admissions, a PEG was placed in 4464 (8.94%). Among PEG recipients, 47.2% were minorities and 15.6% were Medicaid enrollees, whereas 33.7% and 8.2% of patients without a PEG were of a race other than white and enrolled in Medicaid, respectively (P<0.001). Compared with whites, the odds of PEG were highest among Asians/Pacific Islanders (odds ratio [OR] 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32–1.99) and blacks (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.28–1.59). Low household income (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.09–1.44 in lowest compared with highest quartile) and enrollment in Medicaid (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.17–1.59 compared with private insurance) were associated with PEG placement. Racial disparities (minorities versus whites) were most pronounced in small/medium-sized hospitals (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.43–2.20 versus OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.17–1.47 in large hospitals; P value for interaction 0.011) and in hospitals with low ICH case volume (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.38–1.81 versus OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.12–1.50 in hospitals with high ICH case volume; P value for interaction 0.007).
Conclusions—Minority race, Medicaid enrollment, and low household income are associated with PEG placement after ICH.
- Received October 4, 2015.
- Revision received January 6, 2016.
- Accepted January 22, 2016.
- © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.