Early Endovascular Treatment in Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator–Ineligible Patients
Background and Purpose—Intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) treatment in acute stroke has many exclusion criteria. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of endovascular therapy (ET) in intravenous (IV) tPA-ineligible patients.
Methods—Retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database of consecutive patients treated with ET within 6 hours of stroke onset between September 2010 and April 2015. Patients treated with IV-tPA followed by ET were compared with those treated with ET alone because of IV-tPA ineligibility. Efficacy and safety end points included the rates of good outcome (90-day modified Rankin scale score ≤2), successful reperfusion (modified Treatment in Cerebral Ischemia 2b-3), parenchymal hematoma (PH-1 and PH-2), and 90-day mortality. Univariate and logistic regression were performed to identify the predictors of outcomes.
Results—A total of 422 patients were included. Two hundred and fifty-three (59%) patients received IV-tPA+ET, and 169 (41%), ET alone. Combined IV-tPA+ET patients were slightly younger (64.9±15.2 versus 67.9±14.9 years; P=0.05), more often males (56% versus 44%; P=0.01), and had less hypertension (70% versus 81%; P=0.02) and vertebrobasilar occlusions (3% versus 8%; P=0.02). The remaining baseline characteristics, including National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (20 [15–23] versus 19 [15–24]; P=0.85), Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS; 8 [7–9] versus 8 [7–9]; P=0.24), and stroke onset to puncture times (235±70 versus 240±81 minutes; P=0.27), were similar across both groups. There were no significant differences in the rates of modified Treatment in Cerebral Ischemia 2b-3 (83% versus 80%; P=0.52), 90-day modified Rankin scale score ≤2 (45% versus 38%; P=0.21), or any PH (3% versus 5%; P=0.21). Unadjusted 90-day mortality was higher with ET alone (21% versus 34%; P<0.01); however, IV-tPA ineligibility was not associated with modified Treatment in Cerebral Ischemia 2b-3, any PH, good outcome, or 90-day mortality on logistic regression.
Conclusions—IV-tPA-eligible and -ineligible patients seem to have similar outcomes after early ET.
- Received December 24, 2015.
- Revision received January 23, 2016.
- Accepted January 29, 2016.
- © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.