Impaired Arm Function and Finger Dexterity in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Stroke
Motor and Cognitive Assessments
Background and Purpose—Ischemic stroke is the leading cause of upper extremity motor impairments. Although several well-characterized experimental stroke models exist, modeling of upper extremity motor impairments, which are unique to primates, is not well established. Cortical representation of dexterous movements in nonhuman primates is functionally and topographically similar to that in humans. In this study, we characterize the African green monkey model of focal ischemia reperfusion with a defined syndrome, impaired dexterous movements.
Methods—Cerebral ischemia was induced by transient occlusion of the M3 segment of the left middle cerebral artery. Motor and cognitive functions after stroke were evaluated using the object retrieval task with barrier-detour. Postmortem magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology were performed to map and characterize the infarct.
Results—The middle cerebral artery occlusion consistently produced a necrotic infarct localized in the sensorimotor cortex in the middle cerebral artery territory. The infarction was reproducible and resulted in significant loss of fine motor function characterized by impaired dexterity. No significant cognitive impairment was detected. Magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology demonstrated consistent and significant loss of tissue on the left parietal cortex by the central sulcus covering the sensorimotor area. The results suggest that this species has less collateralization, which closely resembles humans.
Conclusions—The reported nonhuman primate model produces a defined and reproducible syndrome relevant to our understanding of ischemic stroke, cortical representation, and sensorimotor integration controlling dexterous movements. This model will be useful in basic and translational research addressing loss of arm function and dexterity.
- Received December 21, 2015.
- Revision received February 8, 2016.
- Accepted February 17, 2016.
- © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.