Apolipoprotein B-100 Antibody Interaction With Atherosclerotic Plaque Inflammation and Repair Processes
Background and Purpose—Treatment with IgG against the malondialdehyde (MDA)-modified apolipoprotein B-100 epitope p45 reduces atherosclerosis in experimental models. This study investigated the association between p45 IgG autoantibodies and plaque inflammation in subjects with advanced cardiovascular disease.
Methods—Native and MDA-p45 IgG levels were analyzed by ELISA in 349 carotid endarterectomy patients. In a subcohort of 195 subjects, endarterectomy samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and ELISA to determine plaque constituents and inflammation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from healthy donors.
Results—Patients with preoperative events of neurological ischemia had lower levels of native p45 IgG. Low levels of MDA-p45 IgG were associated with increased risk of postoperative cardiovascular death during a mean follow-up of 54 months. High plasma levels of native p45 IgG were associated with increased plaque content of collagen and smooth muscle cell growth factors, as well as with lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Exposure of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors to recombinant MDA-p45 IgG in presence of oxidized low-density lipoprotein reduced the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and stimulated release of smooth muscle cell growth factors.
Conclusions—This study confirms previous experimental findings of anti-inflammatory properties of apolipoprotein B-100 p45 antibodies and provides the first clinical evidence of associations between p45 IgG autoantibody levels and atherosclerotic plaque inflammation, plaque repair as well as prevalent and incident cardiovascular events in carotid endarterectomy patients. These findings suggest the possibility that treatment with anti-p45 antibodies may have beneficial effects in advanced cardiovascular disease.
- Received January 7, 2016.
- Revision received January 7, 2016.
- Accepted February 3, 2016.
- © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.