Development and Validation of an Automatic Segmentation Algorithm for Quantification of Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Background and Purpose—ABC/2 is still widely accepted for volume estimations in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) despite known limitations, which potentially accounts for controversial outcome-study results. The aim of this study was to establish and validate an automatic segmentation algorithm, allowing for quick and accurate quantification of ICH.
Methods—A segmentation algorithm implementing first- and second-order statistics, texture, and threshold features was trained on manual segmentations with a random-forest methodology. Quantitative data of the algorithm, manual segmentations, and ABC/2 were evaluated for agreement in a study sample (n=28) and validated in an independent sample not used for algorithm training (n=30).
Results—ABC/2 volumes were significantly larger compared with either manual or algorithm values, whereas no significant differences were found between the latter (P<0.0001; Friedman+Dunn’s multiple comparison). Algorithm agreement with the manual reference was strong (concordance correlation coefficient 0.95 [lower 95% confidence interval 0.91]) and superior to ABC/2 (concordance correlation coefficient 0.77 [95% confidence interval 0.64]). Validation confirmed agreement in an independent sample (algorithm concordance correlation coefficient 0.99 [95% confidence interval 0.98], ABC/2 concordance correlation coefficient 0.82 [95% confidence interval 0.72]). The algorithm was closer to respective manual segmentations than ABC/2 in 52/58 cases (89.7%).
Conclusions—An automatic segmentation algorithm for volumetric analysis of spontaneous ICH was developed and validated in this study. Algorithm measurements showed strong agreement with manual segmentations, whereas ABC/2 exhibited its limitations, yielding inaccurate overestimations of ICH volume. The refined, yet time-efficient, quantification of ICH by the algorithm may facilitate evaluation of clot volume as an outcome predictor and trigger for surgical interventions in the clinical setting.
- computed tomography
- computer-assisted image analysis
- intracerebral hemorrhage
- machine learning
- volumetric analysis
- Received April 13, 2016.
- Revision received August 17, 2016.
- Accepted August 29, 2016.
- © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.