ICES (Intraoperative Stereotactic Computed Tomography-Guided Endoscopic Surgery) for Brain Hemorrhage
A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial
Background and Purpose—Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating disease without a proven therapy to improve long-term outcome. Considerable controversy about the role of surgery remains. Minimally invasive endoscopic surgery for ICH offers the potential of improved neurological outcome.
Methods—We tested the hypothesis that intraoperative computerized tomographic image–guided endoscopic surgery is safe and effectively removes the majority of the hematoma rapidly. A prospective randomized controlled study was performed on 20 subjects (14 surgical and 4 medical) with primary ICH of >20 mL volume within 48 hours of ICH onset. We prospectively used a contemporaneous medical control cohort (n=36) from the MISTIE trial (Minimally Invasive Surgery and r-tPA for ICH Evacuation). We evaluated surgical safety and neurological outcomes at 6 months and 1 year.
Results—The intraoperative computerized tomographic image–guided endoscopic surgery procedure resulted in immediate reduction of hemorrhagic volume by 68±21.6% (interquartile range 59–84.5) within 29 hours of hemorrhage onset. Surgery was successfully completed in all cases, with a mean operative time of 1.9 hours (interquartile range 1.5–2.2 hours). One surgically related bleed occurred peri-operatively, but no patient met surgical safety stopping threshold end points for intraoperative hemorrhage, infection, or death. The surgical intervention group had a greater percentage of patients with good neurological outcome (modified Rankin scale score 0–3) at 180 and 365 days as compared with medical control subjects (42.9% versus 23.7%; P=0.19).
Conclusions—Early computerized tomographic image–guided endoscopic surgery is a safe and effective method to remove acute intracerebral hematomas, with a potential to enhance neurological recovery.
- Received April 21, 2016.
- Revision received August 29, 2016.
- Accepted September 12, 2016.
- © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.