Computed Tomographic Blend Sign Is associated With Computed Tomographic Angiography Spot Sign and Predicts Secondary Neurological Deterioration After Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Background and Purpose—Significant early hematoma growth in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage is an independent predictor of poor functional outcome. Recently, the novel blend sign (BS) has been introduced as a new imaging sign for predicting hematoma growth in noncontrast computed tomography. Another parameter predicting increasing hematoma size is the well-established spot sign (SS) visible in computed tomographic angiography. We, therefore, aimed to clarify the association between established SS and novel BS and their values predicting a secondary neurological deterioration.
Methods—Retrospective study inclusion criteria were (1) spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage confirmed on noncontrast computed tomography and (2) noncontrast computed tomography and computed tomographic angiography performed on admission within 6 hours after onset of symptoms. We defined a binary outcome (secondary neurological deterioration versus no secondary deterioration). As secondary neurological deterioration, we defined (1) early hemicraniectomy under standardized criteria or (2) secondary decrease of Glasgow Coma Scale of >3 points, both within the first 48 hours after symptom onset.
Results—Of 182 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, 37 (20.3%) presented with BS and 39 (21.4%) with SS. Of the 81 patients with secondary deterioration, 31 (38.3%) had BS and SS on admission. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified hematoma volume (odds ratio, 1.07 per mL; P≤0.001), intraventricular hemorrhage (odds ratio, 3.08; P=0.008), and the presence of BS (odds ratio, 11.47; P≤0.001) as independent predictors of neurological deterioration.
Conclusions—The BS, which is obtainable in noncontrast computed tomography, shows a high correlation with the computed tomographic angiography SS and is a reliable predictor of secondary neurological deterioration after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.
- Received May 20, 2016.
- Revision received October 4, 2016.
- Accepted October 19, 2016.
- © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.