Estimating the Risks of Adverse Radiation Effects After Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Arteriovenous Malformations
Background and Purpose—We evaluated risk factors associated with the development of adverse radiation effects (ARE) after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).
Methods—We evaluated 755 patients with AVM who underwent a single Gamma Knife SRS procedure with at least a 2-year minimum follow-up. Eighty-seven patients (12%) underwent previous resection and 128 (17%) had previous embolization. The median target volume was 3.6 mL (range, 0.1–26.3 mL). The median margin dose was 20 Gy (range, 13–27 Gy).
Results—Fifty-five patients (7%) developed symptomatic ARE at a median follow-up of 75 months. The cumulative rates of symptomatic ARE were 3.2%, 5.8%, 6.7%, and 7.5% at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Factors associated with a higher rate of developing symptomatic ARE included larger AVM volume, higher margin dose, larger 12-Gy volume, higher Spetzler–Martin grade, and higher radiosurgery-based score. The rates of developing symptomatic ARE were higher in the brain stem (22%) or thalamus (16%), compared with AVMs located in other brain locations (4%–8%). Nineteen patients (3%) sustained irreversible new neurological deficits related to ARE, and 1 patient died. The rates of irreversible symptomatic ARE were 0.8%, 1.9%, 2.1%, and 2.8% at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years, respectively. The 5-year cumulative rates of irreversible symptomatic ARE were 9.1% in thalamus, 12.1% in brain stem, and 1.4% in other locations.
Conclusions—The knowledge of ARE risk rates after AVM radiosurgery can assist informed consent for patients with AVM, their families, and healthcare providers.
- adverse radiation effects
- arteriovenous malformation
- Gamma knife
- radiation necrosis
- stereotactic radiosurgery
- T2 changes
- Received July 19, 2016.
- Revision received September 8, 2016.
- Accepted October 18, 2016.
- © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.