Vessel Wall Enhancement and Blood–Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier Disruption After Mechanical Thrombectomy in Acute Ischemic Stroke
Background and Purpose—Less than half of acute ischemic stroke patients treated with mechanical thrombectomy obtain permanent clinical benefits. Consequently, there is an urgent need to identify mechanisms implicated in the limited efficacy of early reperfusion. We evaluated the predictors and prognostic significance of vessel wall permeability impairment and its association with blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) disruption after acute stroke treated with thrombectomy.
Methods—A prospective cohort of acute stroke patients treated with stent retrievers was analyzed. Vessel wall permeability impairment was identified as gadolinium vessel wall enhancement (GVE) in a 24- to 48-hour follow-up contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, and severe BCSFB disruption was defined as subarachnoid hemorrhage or gadolinium sulcal enhancement (present across >10 slices). Infarct volume was evaluated in follow-up magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical outcome was evaluated with the modified Rankin Scale at day 90.
Results—A total of 60 patients (median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 18) were analyzed, of whom 28 (47%) received intravenous alteplase before mechanical thrombectomy. Overall, 34 (57%) patients had GVE and 27 (45%) had severe BCSFB disruption. GVE was significantly associated with alteplase use before thrombectomy and with more stent retriever passes, along with the presence of severe BCSFB disruption. GVE was associated with poor clinical outcome, and both GVE and severe BCSFB disruption were associated with increased final infarct volume.
Conclusions—These findings may support the clinical relevance of direct vessel damage and BCSFB disruption after acute stroke and reinforce the need for further improvements in reperfusion strategies. Further validation in larger cohorts of patients is warranted.
- Received October 11, 2016.
- Revision received November 22, 2016.
- Accepted December 19, 2016.
- © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.