Ten-Year Temporal Trends in Medical Complications After Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage in the United States
Background and Purpose—Data on medical complications after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are sparse. We assessed trends in the prevalence of urinary tract infection, pneumonia, sepsis, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism, acute renal failure (ARF), and acute myocardial infarction after ICH in the United States.
Methods—A total of 575 211 adult ICH cases were identified from the 2004 to 2013 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Weighted complication risks were computed by sex and mechanical ventilation status. Multivariate models were used to evaluate trends in complications and assess their association with in-hospital mortality, cost, and length of stay.
Results—Overall risks of urinary tract infection, pneumonia, sepsis, DVT, pulmonary embolism, ARF, and acute myocardial infarction after ICH were 14.8%, 7.8%, 4.1%, 2.7%, 0.7%, 8.2%, and 2.0%, respectively, but risk differed by sex and mechanical ventilation status. From 2004 to 2013, odds of DVT and ARF increased, whereas odds of pneumonia, sepsis, and mortality declined over time. All complications were associated with >2.5-day increase in length of stay and >$8000 increase in cost. ARF and acute myocardial infarction were associated with increased mortality in all patients; sepsis and pneumonia were associated with increased mortality only in nonmechanical ventilation patients, whereas urinary tract infection and DVT were associated with reduced mortality in all patients.
Conclusions—Despite significant mortality reduction, ARF and DVT risk after ICH have increased, whereas odds of sepsis and pneumonia have declined over the last decade. All complications were associated with increased cost and length of stay, but their associations with mortality were variable, likely due in part to survival bias. Innovative strategies are needed to prevent ICH-associated medical complications.
- Received October 13, 2016.
- Revision received January 22, 2017.
- Accepted January 23, 2017.
- © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.