Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Severely Impairs Brain Parenchymal Cerebrospinal Fluid Circulation in Nonhuman Primate
Background and Purpose—Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating form of stroke with neurological outcomes dependent on the occurrence of delayed cerebral ischemia. It has been shown in rodents that some of the mechanisms leading to delayed cerebral ischemia are related to a decreased circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain parenchyma. Here, we evaluated the cerebral circulation of the CSF in a nonhuman primate in physiological condition and after SAH.
Methods—We first evaluated in physiological condition the circulation of the brain CSF in Macaca facicularis, using magnetic resonance imaging of the temporal DOTA-Gd distribution after its injection into the CSF. Then, animals were subjected to a minimally invasive SAH before an MRI evaluation of the impact of SAH on the brain parenchymal CSF circulation.
Results—We first demonstrate that the CSF actively penetrates the brain parenchyma. Two hours after injection, almost the entire brain is labeled by DOTA-Gd. We also show that our model of SAH in nonhuman primate displays the characteristics of SAH in humans and leads to a dramatic impairment of the brain parenchymal circulation of the CSF.
Conclusions—The CSF actively penetrates within the brain parenchyma in the gyrencephalic brain, as described for the glymphatic system in rodent. This parenchymal CSF circulation is severely impaired by SAH.
- Received January 6, 2017.
- Revision received March 21, 2017.
- Accepted April 14, 2017.
- © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.